Using the Approval Notice, the applicant may obtain the H1 visa from the US Consulate. Spouses and unmarried children under the age of 21 may receive visas as well. Hence before entering into a new job, it is always better to complete the visa transfer.. The H-1B visa covers many fields of work ranging from architecture and engineering to health and medicine. Certain H1B holders may be eligible to extend their H1B status beyond the six year limit under AC21 guidelines. The attached documents will be checked along with the application. List of documents required for H1B Visa
Want to live and work in the United States legally? The H1B visa might be the perfect visa for you. During the H1B transfer procedure, the following documents may be required:
Last 3 months pay slips.
H1B approval documents.
Copies of I-94 records.
Copy of Social Security Card.
Copy of existing valid visa
Copy of all your Diploma/Degrees.
H1B Visa Transfer
In case of non approval of the H1B transfer, the original H1B visa will be lost. This visa allows a foreign national to be sponsored by a US Company for a period of six years and entitles your spouse (husband/wife) and children to accompany you and live in United States of America. H1B holder can buy or sell property in USA.
Once the application for H1B Visa has been submitted to USCIS(United States Citizenship and Immigration Service) will be reviewed for completeness. H1B transfers are unlimited. H1B visa holders can travel in and out of the United States, when it has been granted by a United States Consulate. One of the main benefits of the H1B visa is that it is a ‘dual intent’ visa – you can apply for a Green Card (Legal Permanent Residency).
H1B visas are subject to annual numerical limits, currently 65,000 for Fiscal Year 2011. 2 year Diploma) plus six years work experience.
A license to practice in the chosen occupation (if such a license is required to practice).
Current H1B Visa holders can transfer their visa and start work for a new employer once H1B transfer petition is submitted to the USCIS by the new sponsor company. If all the requirements are met, USCIS will send an approval notice to the US employer and approval notice will be sent. Individuals can not apply for an H1B visa. If the application is denied, the USCIS will notify in writing the reason for rejection.
H1B Visa Eligibility
A letter from the Current Employer
Offer letter form the company in United States
Resume of the applicant
Sample Company projects documents and some documents describing what the company does
Approval Notice (form I 797) of the original petition
Employment Verification letter
6 Months Bank Statements
Persons who hold a four year college degree or higher educational degree, or the equivalent in work experience.
12 years work experience, OR a mix of further education (e.g
Gambling is the act of betting money with the expectation of profits. With so many…
Internet Gambling Facts and Problems
What do you know about Internet gambling? Are you aware of the problems associated with it? Read on to know them and find some alarming facts about online gambling, in this article.
Reasons Why Gambling Should Be Illegal
What are the adverse effects of gambling? How does it affect society? Should gambling be legal? We don’t think so and here we bring you an article that discusses the reasons why gambling should be illegal.. Some of us are addicted to the habit, without even knowing that. The thrill in betting money and that excitement in the uncertainty of winning or losing it is addictive. How does gambling affect an individual? What are its effects on society? Read this Buzzle article to know about the negative impact of gambling.
6. He’s got three PGA Tour wins but his last win was in 2011.
Brian Gay won this tournament in 2009. Zach Johnson has not won since capturing his second major at the 2015 British Open last July. Justin Leonard is 43 years old and he has 12 PGA Tour wins but his last win was in 2008.
Boo Weekley won the RBC Heritage in back-to-back years in 2007 and 2008. Thomas is 22 years old and he won for the first time on tour last November in the 2015 CIMB Classic.
T-13. In his last start, Brian missed the cut at the Valspar Championship over a month ago.
Bryson DeChambeau – 66 to 1 odds
Stewart Cink – 150 to 1 odds
4. Kevin Kisner – 25 to 1
Justin Leonard won this tournament in 2002. Snedeker also won this tournament in 2011.
After a 10th place tie in the Masters last week, Jason Day is still ranked as the #1 golfer in the world and he’s the fairly heavy favorite to win the 2016 RBC Heritage at betting odds of 5.5 to 1. Then a number of notable golfers are also listed with comments who have much higher odds this week to win the 2016 RBC Heritage.
Boo Weekley – 140 to 1 odds
Luke Donald is a fomer #1 ranked golfer but he’s not won a tournament since 2012. Branden Grace missed the cut at the Masters last week but the 27 year old has seven European Tour wins including the 2016 Qatar Masters in January. Matt Kuchar, Zach Johnson – 22 to 1 odds each
Davis Love III – 250 to 1 odds
The 2016 RBC Heritage golf tournament on the PGA Tour is taking place this week from April 14-17, 2016, at the Harbor Town Golf Links at the Sea Pines Resort on Hilton Head Island, South Carolina. That was the last of his five PGA Tour wins. Weekley also won at Colonial in 2013 for three career PGA Tour wins. Fitzpatrick has a lot of talent and he won his first pro tournament last October at the 2015 British Masters on the European Tour. He missed the cut last week as did Jason Dufner. Boo made the cut in his last two tournaments but he was no threat to win either time.
Matt Kuchar tied for 24th at the Masters. Kuchar has seven PGA Tour wins but his last win was in the RBC Heritage in 2014. Snedeker has eight PGA Tour wins including his latest win which was at the 2016 Farmers Insurance Open in early February. Billy Horschel tied for 17th at the Masters last week which is not bad but Horschel only has three tour wins and his last win was at the Tour Championship in 2014.
2. After being the low amateur at the Masters and tying for 21st place overall, Bryson DeChambeau is turning pro for the 2016 RBC Heritage.Not many golfers win their pro debuts and this guy should be higher than 66 to 1 odds this week.
Listed below are all the PGA golfers with odds of 50 to 1 or less with comments. Paul Casey – 16 to 1
Stewart Cink has wins in this tournament in both 2000 and 2004. Davis tied for 42nd last week at the Masters. Prior to The Masters, Jason Day won the Arnold Palmer and the WGC Match play in back-to-back weeks but he took a week off before the Masters. He has 21 PGA Tour wins including a shocker last year at the 2015 Wyndham Championship at age 51.
Graeme McDowell won the RBC Heritage in 2013. Davis Love III (1987, 1991, 1992, 1998, 2003) holds the record for most wins in the tournament with five followed by Hale Irwin (1971, 1973, 1994) with three wins. Tony Finau won for the first time on tour on March 27, 2016 at the Puerto Rico Open, an alternate PGA Tour event. He missed the cut last week but improvement is expected this week.. He’s a talented golfer but he never wins. Haas has six PGA Tour wins with his last win coming in January of 2015. Jason Day – 5.5 to 1 odds
Carl Pettersson – 225 to 1 odds
Kevin Na has now played in 312 PGA events and he only has one win. He has four career PGA Tour wins but his last win was in 2013. Matthew Fitzpatrick – 30 to 1
Brandt Snedeker tied with Jason Day last week in 10th place at the Masters. He’s 44 years old and he has six wins on the PGA Tour with his last win coming in 2009 at The British Open for his only career major.
Justin Leonard – 175 to 1 odds
Aaron Baddeley won the RBC Heritage in 2006. He has 12 PGA Tour wins. If Jason Day falters this week this kid could win.
1. Billy Horschel, Branden Grace, Kevin Na – 40 to 1 odds each
Kevin Kisner tied for 37th place at the Masters last week. Charles Howell has two wins on tour in 463 starts. He’ll win this week if he’s back to his previous form but is 5.5 to 1 odds worth the risk?
Young 21 year old Matthew Fitzpatrick from England tied for 7th at the Masters earning himself a return trip next year. Pettersson has missed the cut in his last two PGA tournaments.
Davis Love III holds the record for most wins in this tournament with five but his last win here was in 2005. Baddeley missed the cut at Houston two weeks ago in his last start. He does have 13 European Tour wins but his last win was in 2014.
Bill Haas tied for 24th last week at the Masters. He’s a tough bet here at only 25 to 1 odds.
Paul Casey tied for 4th at Augusta last week and now he’s the second choice in the betting odds to win this week at 16 to 1. He’s 32 years old and his only PGA Tour win came last November in the RSM Classic. The rest of these golfers at 50 to 1 odds each did not play last week in the major.
3. Charley Hoffman tied for 29th at the Masters last week. Jason Dufner, Charles Howell, Charley Hoffman, Tony Finau, Luke Donald, Graeme McDowell – 50 to 1 odds each
Aaron Baddeley – 140 to 1 odds
Good luck to all the PGA golfers and especially the bettors this week at the 2016 RBC Heritage!
The RBC Heritage golf tournament dates back to 1969 when Arnold Palmer won the inaugural event. Justin Thomas tied for 39th at the Masters. Paul Casey has only won once on the PGA Tour back in 2009. The big news for the 2016 RBC Heritage is that Jason Day is in the field and he is easily the highest ranked golfer here this week.
Carl Pettersson from Sweden won the RBC Heritage in 2012. Brandt Snedeker – 20 to 1
7. Here is a list of the betting odds for the PGA golfers to win the 2016 RBC Heritage golf tournament.
The administration of the site is going to be processed every day causing you to be enough time to concentrate on your online marketing strategy.
casino and poker online need constant attention which is essential that you offer good customer care out of all languages of the target markets. Play casino and poker online to determine more hands and make use of the ease of a web-based poker site whenever you cannot get free from the home or simply possess a very little time to experience.
Within the recent game playing industry events, which I joined, I overheard a discussion between two guys and one of them instructed another that using a casino website is a means to make quick money online. There aren’t many players who claim eternal loyalty to some gaming site and therefore the active gaming cycle on the particular site can vary from weeks to a few months. This is often a vital skill in enhancing your poker game. Most poker pros will agree the psychology of poker is an extremely important a part of the things they’re doing well. The program of these sites happen to be produced by mainly several specialist developers plus they all try to provide you with as enjoyable and realistic an event as you possibly can that you should play casino poker online. .
The immediacy from the internet has exposed a brave “new world “for gambler. It is therefore vital that you stabilize your casino and poker online have fun with real live games to operate in your skills.
It usually takes a few weeks to possess your casino and poker online gaming site fully operational an internet-based, after which it’s your decision they are driving traffic towards your website. Customer retention is with you. The majority of the well-known casino and poker online sites are run by reputable companies who’ve been within the gaming niche for quite a long time. You may either to setup and manage your personal customer care team otherwise allow the operator handle this for you personally.
casino and poker online are a good spot to play if you have use of a card room in your town I’d recommend spent some play at live games. Creativity in marketing and customer retention is crucial in the current competitive online entertainment business and something is only able to concentrate on the right players by understanding the players themselves. This skill isn’t attainable in internet poker room play; you need to be sitting over the table out of your opponents to achieve this expertise. Playing inside a live game is very totally different from playing on-line poker. You now are becoming to the facets of poker that cope with playing another players and not simply them you’re dealt. In on-line poker you won’t ever need to be in person together with your opponent whereby live games you can observe your attacker so that you get the chance to determine any tells that they’re going to exhibit. If you fancy a flutter you will get your fix. Locate a good home game or look
for a local card room if at all possible and go play a couple of times per month if you’re able to
In addition, I suggest that you concentrate on only one or two race tracks every horse betting season. I do not use a computer software to make money on betting on horse racing. I use “How to ‘Place Bet’ on Favorites for a Living” by Mohammed Ali. You will find that most horse racing blogs are moderated and maintained by experts who have developed reliable handicapping systems and are more than willing to share secrets with subscribers. Finally, use online resources, such as TwinSpires, to make bets online and receive free tips on handicapping
In addition, I suggest that you review all race results on a regular basis by studying copies of the “Daily Racing Form.” This newspaper can be instrumental in teaching you how to handicap properly and win more money. By handicapping the horses and race conditions and studying the various mathematical models, you may make money betting on horse racing.
You might also read online blogs about horse racing in order to make money by betting on horse racing. You will find the “Daily Racing Form” available at most newsstands, at horse racing venues and by direct-mail subscription as well as online downloads.
While there is no guarantee that anyone will win consistently by betting on horse races, recent developments in computer software and handicapping methods have reduced the amount of financial risk. In addition, track the performance of each horse and knowing whether the performance of the horse is improving with maturity or declining with age. You will also need to know how each horse performs in a variety of weather and track conditions and whether there is a synergy between the horse and a particular jockey. In addition, many of these blogs feature online-discussion forums on which you can swap information about effective betting methods and systems.
Make money betting on horse racing by learning how to handicap the horses properly by reading the articles on this site. I spend my time knowing the Southern California race tracks. In addition, I suggest using a system that has been proven
It causes a decline in his/her work performance, thus hampering his career.
? Over time, the practice of gambling starts becoming a habit and begins to have damaging effects at psychological, physical, and social levels. On giving a serious consideration to the negative effects of gambling, we realize that it is best avoided.
? Gambling at the cost of one’s job results in a decline in the quality of his professional life. The greed never ends and they keep betting more and more. Their debt keeps building and it may reach an amount that exceeds their capacity to repay.
? Studies show that children with a sibling or parent addicted to gambling, are more likely to take to substance abuse.
? An Austrian study said that around 1 in 5 suicidal patients had a gambling problem.
Mental and physical health problems, financial issues, and conflicts in the family are among the common negative effects of gambling. Rehabilitating the gambling addicts needs money and time, and the process is not very easy. Thus, gambling practices cause a huge financial burden on the families of the affected and on the society at large.
Gambling refers to the betting of money on an event with an uncertain outcome, with the intent of winning additional wealth. The skill of a gambler lies in weighing the three parameters and making a decision about what amount should be staked and how much should be expected in return.
? Similar to how an individual keeps consuming substances like drugs or alcohol to experience an altered mental state, he continues to gamble. The two go hand in hand. The addiction leads people to continue with gambling irrespective of whether they earn or lose in the deal. To add to the so-called merry atmosphere, gamblers often smoke or drink while playing.
? Research has shown that gambling can lead to harmful behavior in people. Card games, coin tossing, and dice-based games are some non-casino based forms of gambling. Six to eight million people in America are estimated to have a gambling problem.
? Substances of abuse are served at casinos and in pubs and clubs, thus increasing the likelihood of gamblers consuming them. ? A majority of those addicted to gambling have substance abuse disorders.
? Children of parents who are problem gamblers or gambling addicts tend to feel abandoned and angry, further increasing stress and leading to strained family relations.
? Addiction to gambling has been linked with substance abuse. Some take to substance abuse to supplement the high they get from winning huge sums while gambling. A recreational activity is supposed to be refreshing and relaxing, but something like gambling is contrary to the very purpose of recreation. Some go that way to forget the sorrow of losing big sums when gambling.
? They start borrowing money and take secret loans. Over time, it becomes a habit, and eventually an obsession that can’t be overcome. A study by the same university suggested that 73% of the individuals who are imprisoned are found to be problem gamblers.
? People who fall prey to gambling tend to remain away from their families and waste money on other bad practices. They tend to stay away from their near ones, resulting in distrust between them and their loved ones.
? The costs of treating compulsive gamblers are huge. The addiction gets on to the gamblers to such an extent that they fail to think wisely before acting. In spite of the losses incurred, they continue betting. Betting is a mentally taxing activity, and as one goes on risking more and more money, anxiety starts building.
Gambling = Thoughtless Expenditure + Waste of Time
Compulsive gambling leads to bankruptcy
? Apart from absence at work and drop in efficiency, a common observation is that gamblers tend to steal money and engage in fraudulent behavior to recover from financial losses incurred when gambling, or to get more money to bet.
? People continue gambling with the greed of winning money. The National Council of Problem Gambling (NCPG) describes this type of gambling behavior as problem gambling.
? According to a research by NCPG, 76 percent of problem gamblers are likely to have a major depressive disorder.
? The addiction to gambling can leave one in bankruptcy. In the following sections of this Buzzle article, we discuss the negative effects of gambling on the individual and society.
? Gambling has proven to be addictive. It can drag you into crime, gambling isn’t fun.
Initially, one looks at gambling as a way to run away from life’s problems, or from stress, anger, and loneliness. Addiction to gambling, coupled with substance abuse can make the gamblers physically abusive towards their family. The effect is similar to that of having a drug or a drink, which is why gambling changes one’s mental state and mood.
You could be at gunpoint or holding the gun. Thus, gambling can have a grave economic impact which is difficult to reverse.. They engage in gambling activities at the cost of their time with family and friends. Sports betting and arbitrage betting are the other types. Forget satisfaction or peace, it is not even refreshing in the real sense. The addiction has negative effects on one’s physical and mental health and it proves to be detrimental to one’s social, personal, and professional life. The addiction robs a gambler of all the productive time and leads to loss of efficiency at work. Their mental state can even lead to suicidal tendencies.
? Additionally, rehabilitation and public assistance systems are taxed.
? Gambling is practiced as a means of recreation. Because of this, they land in worse situations and take the wrong decisions in life.
? As gambling leads to increased criminal activities, in a way, gamblers add to the burden on prisons and the legal system.
? Gamblers often exhibit mood swings and a strangely secretive behavior. The stress of risking huge amounts of money or the frustration after losing it can increase the tendency of abuse in gamblers. Due to lost mental peace, they may ill-treat their spouse and children. It only leads to a thoughtless expenditure of money and valuables.
? According to a study by the George State University, 50% of the problem gamblers commit crime. This proves to be detrimental to their social and family life. According to the National Research Council, 10 to 17% of the children of problem gamblers have been abused and so have 25 to 50% of the partners of problems gamblers.
? The stress from gambling may lead to health issues like ulcers, stomach problems, muscle pains, headaches, and problems with sleep.
Games offered in casinos, table games like poker, Red Dog, and Blackjack, as also electronic games like Slot Machine and Video Poker are some of the common types of gambling. The decision to gamble money is based on three parameters namely; how much to bet, the predictability of the event, and the conditions agreed upon, between the gamblers. When they lose the money they had risked, they further gamble to recover the lost amount and it becomes a vicious circle even they can’t escape from.
? Problem gamblers and addicts tend to abuse their family members. It soon becomes a habit that can’t be broken.
? According to the University of New York, in people with alcohol use disorders, the chances of developing an addiction to gambling are 23 times higher.
Some casinos use 8 decks and a shuffling machine to increase the house odds (or casino’s odds) and to make card counting almost impossible. Other Las Vegas casinos play with just one deck with small bets to attract players. This means if you hit a blackjack and your bet is $10 you’ll be paid $15 at a table with a 3:2 payout, but you’d win just $12 at a 6:5 paying table.
. Depending on how much money you play with, you can earn quite a bit of complimentary gifts and discounts at restaurants, stores and theatres.
If you’ve heard of Las Vegas, then I’d bet you’ve heard of the strip. What is the strip? It’s about a 4 mile stretch of a street on Las Vegas Boulevard South. Many tourists never leave it during their stay.
The odds in blackjack vary as much by casino as they do by table. It has one of the highest concentrations of quality casinos and entertainment in the city.
Player’s cards are cards offered at many casinos to gamblers who want to earn perks when they play. With small decks, you’ll probably be seeing the better odds of 3:2, more and more, you’ll start to see rates of 6:5
This is because many casino event games require player interaction and can be a great way for a shy guest to meet a more outgoing person at a casino event.
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Kramer was a writer in New York and a part of the gay culture. He, however, decided that merely watching his friends die quietly wasn’t enough.
This doctor handled, and talked with (though reported as largely uncommunicative), Robert Rayford personally for a period during Rayford’s confinement, and also attended Rayford’s autopsy, confirming the KS diagnosis and noting the preservation of tissue samples that later were shown to carry the variant of the HIV-1 virus.
Dr. Louis, Missouri. His mother’s name was Constance Rayford, and he had a brother named George. Rayford was described as slender. His retardation left him relatively uncommunicative from shyness.
On October 31, 1980 – ominously enough, Halloween night – the French-Canadian gay male steward Gaëtan Dugas visited a gay bathhouse for the first time on a layover in New York City.
AIDS is what defined the decade of the 1980s, a decade that lived in fear beneath the penumbra of a certain and tortuous death from a highly communicable pathogen. It was so unusual at the time . . Louis City Hospital, then transferred to Barnes Hospital (now Barnes-Jewish Hospital) in St. . The swelling in his legs was bothersome, his genitals and legs were covered in scrofulous skin, and his testicles were severely swollen. He was also emaciated (having lost much weight suddenly), and even though he was an African-American male he was considered “pale”. He also had shortness of breath. His symptoms led his caregivers at Barnes Hospital to conclude that one of his problems was lymphedema (a swelling caused by lymphatic problems). This was only a tiny part of his health issues, however.
The disease it spawned was rechristened, in light of its indiscriminate virology, to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome or AIDS. That same year that 248 cases of the disease were reported, local health departments in conjunction with the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta began investigating.
Of the 248 cases known before the detection of the virus, interviewing led to the shocking revelation that at least 40 AIDS victims had one thing in common: all had either had sex with a certain male, blond, gregarious Air Canada flight attendant, or they had sex with someone who did. This networking connection was made in 1984, and it was critical – it meant medical and public health officials investigating the source of AIDS might have finally gotten the breakthrough they needed.
The teen seemed stabilized by late 1968 (when he was around 15 years old). He had been transferred to Deaconess Hospital by then, and in March 1969, however, all of his symptoms reappeared and rapidly worsened. His breathing labored; his white blood cell count (as part of routine blood work) was noted to have dropped dramatically. The only thing concurred at the time was that Rayford’s immune system had been somehow compromised. He developed a fever and died either in the late hours of May 15, 1969, or the early hours of May 16 (sources differ). His primary physician recalled, “Eventually his entire body constituted almost one wave of hard lumps and watery swellings.”
Without a precise diagnosis, Rayford’s cause of death was attributed to the catch-all vagary “loss of vitality”. Intractable fluid imbalance and lung disease were listed as contributors. An autopsy revealed a surprise – his body carried a very rare cancer called Kaposi’s sarcoma internally (though he had but one external lesion on his right thigh). [Today, this cancer and its lesions are bellwethers of AIDS.]
And the real Patient Zero – the HIV-Adam or HIV-Eve – lived and most likely died there, somewhere in the Congo, unknown and unrecognized for the catastrophic role he or she would play in human history.
The criteria for entry were pure sadism: one night only women might be allowed in; other times, a sloppily dressed man might be sent away while another, looking exactly like that man but “famous”, would be let in. Gay-themed parties were held there often, and casual sex in the bathrooms and the “exclusive” privacy lounge was common among attendees.
Both his wife and daughter developed an illness that mimicked his symptoms, and they died in 1977. Louis, Missouri) was the earliest confirmed victim of AIDS in North America.
Gay and straight partiers alike finally found their Valhalla, however, in New York City in a crummy little club in the 1970s called Studio 54. This rat hole was converted into a hot spot known all over the world. Celebrities fell all over themselves to get in and be seen there. Its allure was its faux air of exclusivity. No club before or since carried the cachet of Studio 54. Co-founded and owned by a cabaret-style, (almost a caricature) flamboyantly gay man, Steve Rubell, and a straight-laced heterosexual lawyer, this kitschy club defined hipsters in the Seventies.
This makes little sense.
Occasionally, medical mysteries initially thought solved are found later to have very different truths at their cores.
Tracing backward from Haiti (the source of the US strain in 1966) put the disease firmly in Central Africa. . Memory Elvin-Lewis, thank you so much for not only your contributions to science but to my humble efforts at disseminating it for general readership. I truly appreciate it.
Thus, by the late 1940s male flight attendants were not only undesirable, they were suspect as well. Occupying a job with women that devoted itself to customer service, good manners, and fine grooming, the stewards garnered suspicions of being “queer”.
The End of Days was seemingly at hand.
Gay men realized the danger. Many made the intuitive leap early that perhaps certain activities, such as anal intercourse, might be transmitting the causative agent. Others flatly refused to believe that their lifestyles might be endangering the health of themselves and of others. They felt it was a perceived backlash against gay men. Higher-profile gay men (many closeted during their lifetimes) and activists within the gay community began dying as well as underground sub-culture members (the “Crisco, leather, and fisting” set).
Because of the baffling nature of his case, doctors preserved several tissue and blood samples for later evaluation. In 1987, eighteen years after his death, molecular biologists at New Orleans’ Tulane University tested specimens of Rayford’s preserved blood and tissues. Their findings were stunning: a virus “closely related or identical to” HIV-1 was detected. Further confirmation testing in 1989 proved Robert Rayford (African-American teenage male of St. many cases of AIDS have been autopsied that we didn’t even know had AIDS.”
Gaëtan Dugas, the narcissistic and embittered flight attendant, alternately feeling morose and spiteful about his condition, was given the code name “Patient Zero”, the source of the AIDS epidemic in North America.
Dugas may have personally, and directly, been responsible for dozens of AIDS cases (and no telling how many more indirectly), but he did not bring AIDS to the US, nor was he the first confirmed AIDS victim. As noted, several California men and some Haitian immigrants were found later to have succumbed to the disease before Dugas.
The airline industry developed glamour. The titillation of a sexy stewardess in uniform, pandering to any business traveler’s ego, was priceless. These were women without boundaries, women who went anywhere, anytime. Therefore, they must be promiscuous. The unspoken possibility of sex with a globe-trotting gal was also alluring. Married women were aggressively discouraged from working as stewardesses. The single women, all within a certain preferred range of body type, height, and attractiveness, were wanton women (in the minds of the average male of the day). Although morbid obesity was not the problem in the 1940s it is today, there were no “big girls” on board.
Of a most enlightening nature was Rayford’s adamant refusal of any rectal exams. It seemed that he may have been exposed to homosexual activity (assuming the submissive role in anal intercourse). One of his attending physicians believed that he had been a victim of sexual abuse (a very likely scenario considering Rayford’s socio-economic background). He could also have been “pimped out” against his will by someone who procured males to engage with him. To date, this aspect of his life is unclear.
From a front-line perspective
. Memory Elvin Lewis
Certainly, the African-American teenager Robert Rayford (who had never been outside the city of his birth) was not Patient Zero, either – somebody had to give it to him in the first place.
Years later, once medical science, and particularly genetics testing, had reached a greater level of technological advance, a revision of the “Patient Zero” findings of 1984 seemed necessary. What was learned by later research was both fascinating and horrific simultaneously. It turned out, HIV had not only been in the world for over a century, but it had been in the United States as early as 1966.
In 1979, before Dugas was infected, a bisexual German concert violinist, Herbert Heinrich, died. In 1989, after testing of medical samples from his body, it was learned he was HIV-positive.
This virus, after much international wrangling for recognition of discovery (with a particularly aggressive and bombastic US virologist lobbying for a claim that he had found it first–he did not) was later named Human Immunodeficiency Virus or HIV.
A year earlier, a Portuguese man known only as Senhor José died under mysterious circumstances. He was treated at the London Hospital for Tropical Diseases to no effect. In later years, examination of preserved tissues verified he died of AIDS; the causative virus, HIV-2 was present, making him the first known confirmed victim. Genetic research on the virus indicated he probably contracted the disease in 1966 in Guinea-Bissau (on the northwest coast of Africa). Three gay men in California and six Haitian immigrants to the United States were later confirmed as AIDS victims from that same year.
Certainly it was not Gaëtan Dugas (though, like Typhoid Mary over half a century before him, many deaths could be placed squarely on his doorstep).
There is an interesting correlation between homosexuality and the airline industry. At least, there is a publicly perceived correlation as it pertains to airline flight attendants.
The very first air flight attendants (in the 1920s) were men. These positions were desirable; the men who did these jobs executed their duties more like up-scale, futuristic train porters and ship stewards than as menials. As with many professions in that era (especially in service jobs such as telephone operators, bank tellers, et al) the sky porters known as “stewards” were exclusively male. World War I saw the shift from male to female telephone operators and bank tellers; with a dearth of male workers during World War II, employers turned to the fairer sex to fill their employment needs in the airline industry, too.
He started out as a hairdresser. Wanting to travel, this French-speaking Canadian learned that flight attendants for Air Canada had to be bi-lingual. He moved to Vancouver and learned English to qualify for the job. He found work as a flight attendant on Air Canada. This career choice allowed him the freedom to move around the world, visiting exotic locales, and meeting many strange men for anonymous sexual encounters. In 1977, he was legally married in Los Angeles, California, in an illegal attempt to gain United States citizenship.
The term “velvet rope” came into existence then – a red velvet rope (as one might see in a museum keeping patrons at a safe distance from a particularly priceless exhibit) became the literal and symbolic barrier between the plebes on the street and the hipsters within. Each night crowds gathered outside Studio 54’s doors; admission was granted whimsically by a group of door men and many times by Steve Rubell himself.
As early as his 13th year or sooner, he was sexually active. Beginning in 1966, he started having some physical problems that seemed chronic. His legs swelled, and he developed sores on his genitals and body.
The commercial airlines recognized the goldmine presented by hiring female “stewardesses”. Certainly, they were paid less. There was also marketability in women that men did not have – women could be hawked by an airline as possible sex partners for the discriminating male traveler choosing its service over another.
Dating America’s exposure to AIDS is irrelevant: AIDS is a global problem. And continuing research has led to many more interesting facts about the spread of HIV.
For one gay man, however, being a steward was all he’d needed to satisfy both his wanderlust and his physical lust.
The hedonism of the 1970s raged unchecked, and by the middle of the decade “gay” culture became pop culture. Gay male partiers in the mid 1970s found an outlet on New York’s Fire Island. Gay men rented time-share space in houses on the island and partied their summers away “in season”.
A strange disease lurked among the gay denizens and creepers of the bath houses, though. Men began dying of pneumonia and other respiratory illnesses, but only after drastically losing weight and developing horrific skin lesions on their faces, necks, backs, and chests. This disease became known in the gay community as “gay cancer”. It was particularly volatile, and it progressed rapidly. Dugas caught it early, possibly with his first encounter in the New York gay bathhouse on Halloween 1980.
AIDS now had a face.
Gaëtan Dugas was a French-Canadian born February 20, 1953. His life was on a collision course with history. In 1972, Dugas first became sexually active. [He would later claim he had over 2,500 sexual partners in his lifetime, whether all male is unknown. He may have been bisexual.]
Meanwhile, as a symbolic sign of the coming Armageddon, Studio 54 was forced to close its doors for liquor license violations and tax evasion; entrepreneurs Steve Rubell and his business partner were sentenced to short terms of imprisonment. [Rubell later died of AIDS.]
In his wake, one of the unfortunate legacies he left was a renewed homophobia relative to male flight attendants. They became a lightning rod for America’s fear and anger over AIDS and its links with homosexuality. “Patient Zero”, Gaëtan Dugas, was reviled; in death he was even accused of bringing HIV to North America and spreading it around the country.
There is an apocryphal story that Patient Zero was really Patient “O” (as in the 15th letter of the English alphabet, first letter of the word “Omega” for the last letter of the Greek alphabet, ?). Furthermore, it was alleged that a journalist misinterpreted the “O” (for “?”), and instead wrote up his report, referring to the AIDS’ source as “Patient 0″ [“zero”] instead.
First denying he was sick, he later willfully and maliciously spread the disease to unsuspecting partners. After having casual sex in a darkened room once, a male interviewee later reported he had turned on a light in the room where Dugas lay naked on a bed. This man spotted the lesions (Kaposi’s sarcoma) that were the classic earmarks of “gay cancer” on Dugas’ chest. When he remarked upon it, Dugas replied sardonically, “It’s gay cancer. Maybe you’ll get it.”
The Greek letter “?” always refers to the end of an event or series, not its beginning. Dugas was “Patient Zero”, not “Patient ?” – if the intent was to use such a Greek designation, he would have been named “Patient Alpha” (“?” or “?”) for “the beginning”. It is known that Dugas from the earliest investigations, based on diagrams the CDC (and others) created interlinking sexual contacts among those diagnosed with or dead from the mystery disease, was referred to from the start as Patient Zero (not Omega or “O”).
The discrimination in the labor market meant the United States Supreme Court had to step in and force airlines to hire male flight attendants. This happened in 1971 after nearly 20 years of female-dominated service. Even then, the Court’s decision forcing US airlines to hire men was greeted with derision in the press. It also raised homophobic fears of placing men in such a servile and sexualized role. 1952-1953).
Anal scarring also indicated repeated sexual penetration.
Current scientific research is clear: sometime in the 1930s, a simian form of immunodeficiency virus mutated sufficiently and made the leap across species to become a contagious disease of people.
Mr. It existed as “slim disease”; the condition was universally ignored though many Africans died after mysteriously wasting away. In 1959, about the time the Manhattan Jamaican shipping clerk died of his rare pneumonia, a blood sample from a Congolese man was taken and preserved. Years later, this proved to be HIV-infected. This Congolese man’s fate is unknown (whether he developed full-blown AIDS and died from it or not). Similarly, a preserved lymph-node biopsy specimen taken from a Congolese woman in 1960 later proved to be HIV-positive.
Good investigative work requires dogged determination. Running an enigma to ground can take years.
Finally, in 1968, the boy was admitted to St. Somewhere, there was a Patient Zero, the epidemiological well-spring from which this plague spewed forth.
He wrote myriad articles on the subject and penned a stage play, “A Normal Heart”, that did well. In May 2014, this stage play was brought to the small screen. It was presented as a movie on HBO starring Jim Parsons (of “Big Bang Theory” TV fame). The story documented the earliest days of the AIDS epidemic in America told from the perspective of the New York City/Fire Island cohort. It is engaging: it is what TV can do (but usually fails to do except in rare cases like this one).
Diverting conversations occurred between Rayford and his primary care givers when questioned about his sexual activities. His doctors had not considered homosexuality initially, and all conversations, such as they were, seemed to be taken as referring to female sexual contacts.
Update note:Dr. Doctors, helpless to find the cause of death for the Noe family, preserved some tissue samples. In 1988, further testing showed Noe, his wife, and his daughter had all been HIV-positive
One such mystery concerned the AIDS epidemic in America. As long as the killer remained comfortably within the gay community not much was done to investigate. As soon as AIDS found its way into the heterosexual population, though, suddenly America’s interest in ferreting out the cause was paramount. Panic stricken virologists and other epidemiologists worked feverishly to isolate the source of this sexually transmitted disease first endemic among homosexual men.
Noe’s condition stabilized, but then flared up again in 1975 (coincidentally the same year a strange disorder called “slim disease” was reported in Africa for the first time, the beginnings of epidemic AIDS). In addition to the respiratory condition and joint pains he developed motor skill problems and dementia before he died.
Less Than Zero
In 1976, a Norwegian sailor, designated with the alias “Arvid Noe”, died; his wife and nine-year-old daughter died the next year of the same wasting disease. In 1961, the 15-year-old Noe had sailed on his first voyage to Africa. He worked a merchant vessel that plied along Africa’s west coast from mid-1961 to mid-1962; during this voyage he was treated for gonorrhea. He sailed again to Africa in 1964, with a port of call in Kenya in eastern Africa. In 1966, Noe started suffering from chronic joint pain and recurrent lung infections. By 1968, he could no longer pass a physical to sail, so he worked as a long-haul truck driver.
By the 1950s, this homophobia was rampant, and in the conservative times of Eisenhower and McCarthyism, men were slowly pushed out of the steward jobs.
As further incentive to not hire men as flight attendants, the death of a gay steward in 1954 became a scandal sufficiently great to lead to a rash of “fag bashings” (both gay men and lesbians were targeted) in Miami, Florida. It was one of the nation’s worst anti-gay outbreaks in history.
But, it doesn’t end there.
Molecular research shows the AIDS epidemic of the 1980s stemmed from a viral strain that had entered the US via Haiti about 1966. Other strains have been isolated as well. As in cases like Robert Rayford’s, the disease died with him (though he probably infected others, those people likely did not have access to the sheer number of sexual partners that, for example, Gaëtan Dugas had, and died before spreading it much).
He had a chlamydia infection (a bacterial venereal disease), clearly indicating he was sexually active. His doctors also uncovered evidence of the herpes simplex virus and the virus responsible for Epstein-Barr. Robert Rayford was not terribly forthcoming with his doctors, partly due to his retardation leaving him mostly uncommunicative, but also because he was embarrassed by something.
Dugas, meanwhile, knew he was sick. He didn’t know exactly what was wrong, but he had developed the skin lesions, associated with “gay cancer”. But one can’t spread cancer, of course, because cancer isn’t contagious. He indiscriminately continued having sex with men as his whims overtook him. His “advantage” was his mobility – as a flight attendant, he might be in any part of the US, Canada, or the world on a moment’s notice. His bitterness about having gay cancer crossed over into his lackadaisical attitude about possibly harming others.
The music was disco, the dance beat adapted from gay men and their party scene. The mock S&M dance moves, the sweaty bodies, the throb of the music, the drugs consumed, and the fact that not just anyone could get in heightened its allure.
The dubious distinction of being America’s “Patient Zero” – the first documented and verifiable case of AIDS in the country – belongs not to Dugas but to a mildly mentally retarded black teenager named Robert Rayford (born ca. Memory Elvin-Lewis was kind enough to respond to this piece in person.
AIDS in the United States was isolated in pockets of contagion until the promiscuity (homosexual or otherwise) of the 1970s gave the disease a clear path of propagation in humans. IV drug use, on the rise in the 1970s and early 1980s, also provided another avenue of blood-exchange necessary for the virus to thrive.
Running Dugas to ground, however, was pointless. At the time, there were no criminal laws penalizing the willful spread of a known fatal disease (since then, law changes allow charges of attempted and pre-meditated murder to be brought in many states against anyone who is HIV-positive purposefully engaging in unprotected sexual intercourse with an unwitting partner).
He led doctors to believe any of his sexual activities were strictly heterosexual, even claiming at one point to having a girlfriend (who failed to surface at the time). [This female was found some time later and was found to be in perfect health, relative to HIV and AIDS, from which one can only surmise she and Rayford had no intimate sexual intercourse or such activities were rare enough she was not exposed to critical levels by whatever ailed him.]
Gaëtan Dugas fit right in with the gay community of the bath houses. He was blond, voluble, and open. Sex for him was a series of anonymous engagements, many times conducted hastily in bathroom stalls. He took on whatever he felt like. As well as many other men, he was developing what would become known as “The Clone Look”: close-cropped hair, largish but well-groomed mustache, muscle shirts, short shorts. [The quintessential version of “The Clone Look” would be Freddie Mercury (rock band Queen’s lead vocalist who died of AIDS) after about 1981.]
The Road to Zero
“I’m Candy – Fly Me!”
Homophobia was so great by the late 1950s almost no airlines in the United States would hire men as flight attendants – even Eastern and Pan Am stopped hiring stewards. Stewardesses, however, were very desirable. They were marketed as young, beautiful, and sexually available–this was hardly an acceptable career choice for any he-man. In the same way that the sexual orientation of male nurses was suspect, only “pansies” wanted to be stewards.
This good person also kindly corrected some of the misinformation about Rayford via a personal e-mail and was also kind enough to forward professional papers on the subject. One such paper, in Lymphology from 1973, gives, perhaps, the best clinical synopsis of the case. Another article, entitled Documentation of an AIDS Virus Infection in the United States in 1968 (by the same doctor and others), is also a “must read” for anyone interested in the earlier origins of AIDS in America.
The direct lineage of HIV-1 was traced to two groups of mutations that formed in the primates that carried the simian version. One of the groups was dated to between 1847 and 1907; another subgroup dated to between 1606 and 1871. HIV-2 made the leap most likely between the date range of 1856 and 1922. Thus, it can be seen some prototypical version of the AIDS virus can be dated to the early 17th century.
In the end one can see there is no modern-day “Patient Zero”.
Gateway to the West
Gaëtan Dugas died in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, on March 30, 1984, at the age of 31. His cause of death was kidney-failure brought on by his weakened condition from an onslaught of infections and ailments from AIDS.
Almost any medical professional worth his or her license, whenever a patient dies of a strange ailment, takes the precaution of preserving tissue and blood samples for future research. It is extremely fortunate that some doctors going all the way back to the late 1950s had been so far-sighted. Working backward and re-examining suspicious or otherwise unresolved deaths from contagion globally proved enriching in piecing together the history of AIDS.
Before Robert Rayford in the US, there was a possible case found in a dead Jamaican native named Ardouin Antonio. He came to the US in 1927. He was working as a shipping clerk for a clothier when he died at age 49 on June 28, 1959, in Manhattan. He had developed a very rare kind of pneumonia, seemingly out of the blue. Decades later the doctor who had performed Antonio’s autopsy was asked to re-evaluate the case. Did he think Antonio possibly died of AIDS? “You bet . Louis.
Grethe Rask was a Danish surgeon who had traveled to Zaire in 1972 to lend medical aid for the sick there. She returned to Denmark in 1976 and became relentlessly ill. Her symptoms confounded her colleagues. She died in December 1977. Several years later in 1984, it was confirmed through testing she was HIV-positive. During her time in Zaire, it was known she was directly exposed to blood – it is believed this was the source of her infection.
Concern for dying gay men was not paramount on America’s mind. As more cases of the mysterious killer emerged, the name was changed from “gay cancer” to “gay-related immune deficiency” (GRID). This, at least, was an open recognition that whatever was causing the disease was compromising a body’s immune system. It didn’t explain, however, the rather esoteric choice of gay men (and soon discovered, IV drug users) by an unintelligent, non-sentient pathogen as victims. It wasn’t until the first heterosexual cases of “gay cancer” emerged that the disease was examined more closely.
In conjunction with Studio 54, other bars for gay men to frequent thrived. Another meeting place was the bath houses still found in many larger cities. Once serving the utilitarian function for neighborhood residents to bathe (considering most homes up until the late 1920s did not have indoor plumbing) these quaint reminders of The Good Old Days were social gathering places for gay men. They were prevalent in New York City and in San Francisco. [Bette Midler, a great favorite among gay men, got her start singing in gay bath houses; her piano player in those days was songwriter/musician Barry Manilow).
By April of 1982, 248 cases of the disease were reported nationwide with many others too afraid or indifferent to see a doctor. A virus was isolated in 1983 by French scientists (as Europeans were also recognizing and treating patients with “gay cancer”, many of whom were decidedly not gay).
His first months in the hospital were spent with his doctors cutting back on his water and salt intake, and they wrapped and raised his legs, all to cut down on his tissue’s swelling. Despite this, the inflammation moved up his body and into his lungs. Antibiotics were tried in varying dosages, but Rayford’s condition continued to deteriorate.
Dugas remained unrepentant. He originally denied that whatever disease it was he had could be transmitted sexually. His own words on the subject: “Of course I’m going to have sex. Nobody’s proven to me that you can spread cancer.” His depraved indifference to his sexual partners’ well-being was summarized with “It’s their duty to protect themselves. They know what’s going on out there. They’ve heard about this disease.” The last element of his bitterness was voiced by his wish to take others with him: “I’ve got gay cancer. I’m going to die and so are you.”
Larry Kramer was actively and aggressively involved with what was then known as “gay cancer” in the early 1980s when the disease first made its poisonous presence visibly known in the United States as “gay cancer”.
The music scene was fueled by this gay celebration, none more blatantly than by a vocal group of disco hustlers calling themselves “The Village People”. They dressed in favorite and stereotypical gay icon costumes – a policeman, a construction worker, a cowboy, a gay biker, and a Native American. They were hugely successful for a short time with big sellers “In the Navy” and “YMCA”. More subtly, Donna Summer performed her brand of dance music that was embraced by the gay community as was she.
Rayford lived in a brownstone in a poor neighborhood in St.
In America, the results of further research led to the conclusion that Gaëtan Dugas had not been the true “Patient Zero” after all.
Instead, about the only thing that can be said of HIV is that its “Ground Zero” location was almost certainly Central Africa.
He was admitted with multiple, and strange, symptoms (given his tender age)